Posts Tagged ‘2014’

Preventing Modi to become PM, opposing BJP and breaking NDA

April 9, 2014

Preventing Modi to become PM, opposing BJP and breaking NDA

 

Vedaprakash

 

The anti-Modi rhetoric of old partners of NDA: All most all non-BJP parties except the new allies have started their chorus of “Preventing Modi to become PM, opposing BJP and breaking NDA” one way or the other. The moment Narendra Modi was announced as the PM candidate for BJP, the first party to break from the NDA alliance was JD(S) with the rising rhetoric pitch of Nitish Kumar against Modi. Ironically, he was with the NDA for 17 years and appreciated Modi also. He was suggesting that he might accept L. K. Advani as the PM candidate but not Modi, as he would not be accepted by the secular partners. But, the BJP proceeded with the candidature of Modi, in spite of the fact that even Advani did not like it earlier, but had to accept.

 

Modi – polarizing or taking NDA to win: Then suggestions started circulating that Modi would dominate the scene till NDA gets majority and then Advani would be made PM so that NDA would get maximum majority. Such idea was nurtured in the TV debates usually carried on with the selected ideologues. Even Chandangupta was seen accepting such proportion in such forced debates. That is Modi would be exploited for attracting new voters, youth and polarize, thereby, some Muslim votes also, but if enough seats are won, then Advani would be declared as PM, so that through after poll alliance, more parties could be brought into NDA.

 

Mission 272+ and the reality: Some media carried on Narendra Modi’s ‘Mission 272+’ as follows[1]:

 

  1. As Modi is likely to focus on Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, which account for 210 Lok Sabha seats and if BJP could win more seats that what they had won a paltry 31 seats out of 210 in 2009, then, they ould in a better position. Thus, BJP has to perform hard and opinion polls predict that the BJP is likely to grab at least 100 seats from these areas.

 

  1. Of course, Modi could do well in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and Karnataka, which account for 138 members to the Lok Sabha. Here, as BJP is directly pitted against the Congress in most of the seats it could have an edge over Congress.

 

  1. Modi has already joined the ranks of Jyoti Basu, Mohanlal Sukhadia, Sheila Dikshit and Naveen Patnaik in leading his party to victory in a state three times in a row.  In 2014, the combined force of AIADMK chief Jayalalithaa and BJD chief Naveen Patnaik may influence Modi’s fortunes a lot. It is now for the smaller parties to decide which way to go, and to settle their priorities, local or national. Tamil Nadu, Odhisha, Punjab, Haryana, Assam and the North-East account for 118 LS seats. Modi already has a rapport with J Jayalalithaa and Purno Sangma, while a large section of BJD is also reportedly keen to join the NDA.

 

  1. Many opinion polls have already predicted a positive swing for the BJP in Uttar Pradesh and the elevation of master strategist Amit Shah has become an icing on the cake. There is one school of thought that argues that the party is waiting for an opportune time to flag Modi’s caste antecedent but it is caught in its usual dilemma of whether a casteist projection would conflict with his popular image as a development and good governance votary.

 

  1. Modi cautioned that unless the BJP fine-tuned its booth management, it could end up with more misses than hits. The campaign panel chief wants that the Delhi brass step out of their confines, visit each state, sit with the leaders and office-bearers, hold detailed discussions and then come up with a state-specific draft. It is now-or-never scenario for the BJP.

 

The BJP political masters started their campaign with confidence, of course, with strategy. They moved their coins attracting partners step by step, as they knew very well about the counter-attack of their opponents. Particularly, the AAP posed a spoiler and evidently aiding and abetting the corrupt congress. Unlike other parties BJP has to fight the battle within and outside also due to changes envisaged. Thus, the regional mathematics was learned ahead before declaring anything openly. Through mediators, BJP approached small but strong regional players in mobilizing numbers[2].

 

BJP is gaining in south India again: Contrary to the political predictions and secular-communal debates etc., more regional parties have been attracted to either Modi or BJP. Definitely, in Tamilnadu it scored a victory by roping up alliance with DMDK, MDMK, PMK andIJK[3]. In AP, TDP and others are ready to join NDA and because of the Telengana tangle, they have been calculative about the seats and the sentiments of Telugu people. Even, in Kerala, it is reported that the percentage of BJP is increasing and in Trivandrum, it could create some wonders. Thus, suddenly media starts realizing that Modi is helping NDA to win alliance from south[4] to north! When Dravidian parties other than DMK and AIADMK are accepting Modi, why not others is the mute question.

 

The Comedy play of AAP: After the resignation of AAP on Feb.14, 2014, the political scenario was clear with the major parties facing battle straight. However, the regional parties posed threat both to UPA and NDA and now with the intrusion of AAP in the north. Though AAP posed as anti-corruption crusader, its short-lived 49 days rule exposed the AAP-Cong tactful alliance. AAP adopted hot and cool policy with Congress, but very aggressive towards BJP, thus, creating a picture that it is supporting Congress indirectly. After losing power, it starts attacking BJP more and almost forgetting the list of multi-crore scams. Aravind Kejariwal was just creating nuisance to BJP by going to Gujarat and contesting from Varanasi.

 

The media game-plan of Instigating Muslims against Muslims: The media experts went on approaching Muslim leaders of all parties getting their expressed opinion that they would accept Modi as the PM candidate, as he was responsible for the 2002 riots. This point is harped upon again and again by the TV-channel pundits to corner the BJP spokesman. It is even suggested that if Modi apologize for 2002 riots, Muslims might turn towards him. Rajnath was reportedly apologized for that and it was expected that Modi would follow the suit. But immediately, the Maualanas were interviewed and opinion was created that even if Mody apologize, they would not vote for Modi.

 

Inconsistency of the Muslim leaders towards Modi: Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind general secretary Maulana Mehmood Madani told, “In Gujarat, Jamiat workers on the ground have told me that in several Assembly segments, Muslims voted for Modi. There is a perceptible change of heart and circumstances are different now. I agree the times are changing. Muslims in Gujarat are economically better off than in several states which have so-called secular governments in power,” he told Rahul Kanwal in an exclusive interview on Seedhi Baat[5]. However, later clarified that he declined to either reject or endorse Modi’s possible candidature as Prime Minister[6]. In October 2012, as he called Modi a “tyrant”, the BJP tried to ban him to enter Gujarat[7].

 

Azam Khan type of Anti-Modism: On 28-01-2014, Azam Khan alarmed that there was a big conspiracy going on to divide Muslims … If Muslims were divided, Narendra Modi would form the next government (at the Centre) and therefore they have to remain united, he said while addressing a conference of madrassa managers and principals in Lucknow[8]. As usual he called Modi “murderer”. Many times, his angry was turned towards Amit Shah also. Harping upon the 2002 riots, it is claimed that Muslims would never forgive Modi and vote for him and therefore, BJP cannot get the votes of Muslims.

 

The tirade of Mayavati against Modi: On 21-02-2014, Mayawati told that they will put their “entire strength to prevent Narendra Modi from becoming the Prime Minister. It is in interest of the country to prevent the BJP from coming to power (in the next elections),” Ms. Mayawati told reporters outside Parliament[9]. She claimed that minority community members were apprehensive about  Modi. “If Modi wins, it will give a boost to the communal forces in the country,” the BSP supremo said, adding BJP is not trustworthy as “it says something and does something else”. But she was with BJP in forming government in UP twice.

 

AAP, SP and others turning against Modi: On 16-03-2014, BJP leader and Lok Sabha MP  from Hamirpur (Himachal Pradesh) Anurag Thakur on Sunday criticized Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) leader Arvind Kejriwal for leading an unruly party and helping Congress in its effort to stop Narendra Modi from becoming the Prime Minister[10]. On 31-03-2014, Modi himself accused that Congress was conspiring to prevent him from becoming PM[11]. On the same day, Mulayam asserted that “SP will not let BJP succeeded in Lok Sabha polls and make Narendra Modi the next PM. If they (BJP) get defeated in Uttar Pradesh, Modi will never become PM,” Asking Muslims to remain alert, he said BJP and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) had close relationship and Congress’ role was also suspicious as far as providing facilities to Muslim community was concerned[12].

 

Non-BJP parties dictating about the PM candidate: Ironically, the non-BJP parties were suggesting their choice of Prime Minister candidate, if they wanted to be with NDA. Shiv Sena was suggesting that Sushma Swaraj would be an ideal choice of PM. Then it was changed to suggest that Sushma Swaraj might be better choice, yet some suggested Arun Jaitely. But, on 22-03-2014 Prakash Sigh Badal unwittingly declared that Arun Jaitely would be the Deputy PM[13]. Recently also, one BJP minister of MP said that Sushma could be the next PM[14]. On 25-03-2014, Even Digvijay of Congress also suggested this[15], when they never declared who was their PM candidate. Of course, Mulayam Singh, Mamta Banerjee have been telling that they would not allow Modi to become PM.

 

Ex-MPs, MLAs of Congress and other parties joining BJP: In spite of the domination of Modi, definitely, some regional parties started aligning with BJP forming partners of NDA. Thus, the apprehension made earlier that except Akali Dal all others are going away from NDA proves wrong. Not only that, even former ministers, MPs, MLAs of other parties like Congress, JD (S) etc have started joining BJP. One way, it has become headache for BJP, as they were not only criticizing Modi with harsh language or hate-speech, some of them have been of tainted category. And the BJP has to pay heavy price, if they come to power.

 

BJP is different, Modi is different – new argument of the media: Then started the argument that BJP has become Modi-party, one-man party and no other has any say in BJP. This is the media-floated argument put forward now, but there are few takers. The politicians know very well who is controlling whom and how the parties, leaders of parties and others work and function at the time of winning and losing elections. But why the media play doublegame against BJP is not known. At one side, they project that BJP / NDA has been gaining vote %, Modi the favourite PM and so on , on the other side, they also accuse that BJP is sticking to the communal agenda, Amit Shah is doing that in UP and so on.

 

Modi could win and get votes from all: The conservative but posed as progressive media also slowly accepted the Modi-factor accepted that there would be a change in voting pattern with reversals also. Thus, “the Hindu” (March 21.2014) reported[16], “A large-scale attitudinal survey shows that the Bharatiya Janata Party-led National Democratic Alliance has gained significantly across most parts of the country as well as among most social groups. The only exceptions are the Scheduled Tribes and Muslims.” Thus, finally, the media has to accept that Modi would be acceptable to all and people would vote for him.

 

Vedaprakash

© 06-04-2014

[1] http://www.business-standard.com/article/politics/bjp-s-272-arithmetic-narendra-modi-s-top-5-key-strategies-113081900470_1.html

[2] http://www.newindianexpress.com/thesundaystandard/BJP-Does-the-Regional-Maths-Ahead-of-2014/2014/01/05/article1982945.ece

[3] http://www.livemint.com/Politics/pZtZnyzsDGC8rGoe3ZwjmM/BJP-clinches-sevenparty-alliance-in-Tamil-Nadu.html

[4] http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/bjp-prepares-to-bring-tdp-agp-into-nda/article1-1187474.aspx

[5] http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/rahul-kanwal-jamiat-leader-maulana-madani-narendra-modi-seedhi-baat/1/250605.html

[6] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Will-neither-reject-nor-endorse-Narendra-Modi-Maulana-Mehmood-Madani/articleshow/18683456.cms

[7] http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/bjp-wants-maulana-vastanvi-banned-from-gujarat-for-calling-narendra-modi-tyrant-283279

[8] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Azam-Khan-asks-Muslims-to-unite-to-prevent-Modi-from-becoming-PM/articleshow/29508494.cms

[9] http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/mayawati-vows-to-prevent-modi-from-becoming-pm/article5713423.ece

[10] https://in.news.yahoo.com/kejriwal-aiding-congress-prevent-modi-becoming-pm-anurag-132313795.html

[11] http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/congress-conspiring-to-prevent-me-from-becoming-pm-modi/article5852006.ece

[12] http://www.livemint.com/Politics/PQhqxtAbYJvJVWLktaZLmJ/Will-not-let-BJP-succeed-in-making-Narendra-Modi-PM-Mulayam.html

[13] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/lok-sabha-elections-2014/news/Punjab-CM-pitches-for-Jaitley-as-deputy-PM-could-ruffle-feathers-in-BJP/articleshow/32440602.cms

[14] http://indianexpress.com/article/india/politics/sushma-swaraj-would-be-a-better-pm-than-modi-digvijay-singh/

[15] http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/Sushma-Swaraj-Would-be-a-Better-PM-than-Modi-Digvijay/2014/03/25/article2129898.ece

[16] http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/2009-vote-share-may-be-reversed-in-2014/article5774599.ece

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The 6th Vedic workshop, 2014 and the Agnichayana, 1974-75 – compared

January 16, 2014

The 6th Vedic workshop, 2014 and the Agnichayana, 1974-75 – compared

Controversies during 1975 Agnichayana

Controversies during 1975 Agnichayana

Indians have been very often accused of forgetting the past, recent past but always harp upon the lengthy past, yet, they are made to forget what happened just 40 years back. Thus, going through a GOOGLE search, my old books and journals, I came across the old issue of Illustrated Weekly dated May 25, 1975, Frits Staal’s book, “The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Altar”[1] and of course details available from the current website of the Vedic Workshop, 2014[2]. In 40 years, how much the connected people, places and nations have changed is noted. In Indian context, I am surprised to note that even Indians have changed much i.e, westernized, and now Americanized in all aspects.

What is Agnichayana 1975 Illustrated Weekly of India

What is Agnichayana 1975 Illustrated Weekly of India

What is “Agnichayana”[3]: The Illustrated Weekly dated May 25, 1975 stated that in Kerala a “renaissance” in yajnas took place over 1,500 years ago to counteract Buddhist influence. However, it is not known as to Budhhism was so dominant in Kerala during 4th-5th centuries. Some scholars pointed out that it was there till 16th century and then declined[4]. From 16th-17th centuries onwards, the Portuguese and other European and Arab presence started here and therefore, the so-called Vedic / Yajnas cannot be said to be the reason for their decline or any necessity to counter its influence. This movement of performance of Yajnas, was spearheaded by Mezhathole Agnihotri, who conducted over 99 yagnas at Yagneswaram. In the past 75 years, about 150 yagnas were conducted at Sukapuram, Perumanam, Irinjalakuda, Taliparambu and Karikatt in Kerala. However, its response was not felt in north India or others.

J F Staal 1975 Agnichayana

J F Staal 1975 Agnichayana

From Somayaga to Agnichayana: The attempts of westerners or foreigners urging Keralite Nambudris to reenact the Yagnas go back to 1962, when Frits Staal persuaded Ittiravi Nambudri to conduct “Somayaga”, but it could not be materialized due to technical reasons. Later, an “International Agnichayna Committee of scholars” from Holland, America, Britain, Japan, India, Austria, East Germany, West Germany, France, Nepal and Finland was formed. The involvement of the foreigners raised many objections, because of the motives revealed at that time. At one side, the experimentation or reenactment of Vedic rituals for the research or foreigners and the counter effctects produced by them thereafter. The critics and opposing groups explicity pointed out that the films and audio recording would be used against India, Hindus and Vedas themselves. However, Frits Staal, because of his association with South India, that too having a Keralite wife Saraswati, could persuade the Nambudris to conduct Yajnas for him.

Asko Parpola in 1975 attending Agnichayana in Kerala

Asko Parpola in 1975 attending Agnichayana in Kerala

The long standing association of Frits staal with India: Johan Frederik (Frits) Staal was Born in Amsterdam, studied mathematics, physics and philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and took his undergraduate degree in 1954. He moved on to studies in Indian Philosophy and Sanskrit at Banaras Hindu University and the University of Madras where he completed his doctorate in 1957. During his long career, Professor Staal served in a number of notable institutions. He was Lecturer in Sanskrit at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London from 1958 to 1962. He was Assistant and Associate Professor of Indian Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania during 1961-62. He was Professor of General and Comparative Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam from 1962 to 1967. He served as Visiting Professor of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during 1967-68. He was Professor of Philosophy and South Asian Languages at the University of California at Berkeley from 1968 to 1991. As a member of Berkeley’s Department of Philosophy, he founded the university’s Department of South and Southeast Asian Studies (originally called the Department of South and Southeast Asian Languages and Literatures) in 1973, and served as its first Chair. He took early retirement from Berkeley in 1991 and served as Visiting Professor in universities around the world[5]. He is survived by his wife Sarasvati of Berkeley, California, a son and a daughter.

Ikari Japanese student 1975 Agnichayana

Ikari Japanese student 1975 Agnichayana

First refusal and then acceptance to perform: J Frits Staal and Asko Parpola requested Ittiravi Nambudri in 1971 to organize more complicated “Agnichayana”. With efforts going on, it was scheduled to be performed in 1974. But, in 1974 some of the ritualists who were supposed to perform Yagna refused to do so. The performance of ritual for the foreigners, recording of the ritual and dramatization were opposed by the traditional Vedic scholars. Therefore, it was postponed, but with the support of and Erkara Ramam Nambudris, the plan was revived to have it in 1975. The sudden change in mind was due to the commitment in performing Yasjnas or money offered by the foreigners was not known explicitly. In any case, Staal was responsible for creating the awareness about the Vedic rituals in modern times[6].

Animal sacrifice opposed 1975

Animal sacrifice opposed 1975

The “foreign connection” was criticized in 1974-75: The connection, promotion and funding of Yagna reenactment activities were criticized by many during the period of 1974-75. N. V. Krishna Warrior[7] (1911-1989) and Thayyat Sankaran[8] (1926-1985) attacked the Indian Yagna performers and commented about “the desire for dollar”. They were noted poets and critics. This only could be taken as the financial influence affecting the traditional scholars. Another well-known poet and the first Jnanapith Award winner, G. Sankara Kurup, popularly known as “G” condemned the animal sacrifice associated with the yagna activities. The usage of animals in the Yagna fires had been the controversial one and the views expressed have been –

  1. Animals were scarified.
  2. Animals not sacrificed.
  3. Only substitutes used.
Krishna Warrior and Thayyat Sankaran opposed foreign contribution and participation

Krishna Warrior and Thayyat Sankaran opposed foreign contribution and participation

The hypocrisy in Ahimsa, etc were revealed in the opposition of animal-sacrifice: Again opposition started, this time from the public on the grounds that the goat would be suffocated to death, even if it was not sacrificed. However, others argued, “Are you not every day dissecting hundreds of animals in the colleges and butchering thousands in the market, including cows?”. The filming of the event was also opposed by the agitators claiming that the films would be used in their part of propaganda against India. Ironically, the Communist Party (Marxist) spoke of “the political penetration of Dollar Imperialism into India”. The Illustrated Weekly added that, “In the mean while, somebody (said to ge a Jana Sanghi) threatened to burn himself in the sacrificial fire!”.

G. Sankaran Kurup criticized the animal sacrifice

G. Sankaran Kurup criticized the animal sacrifice

The Agnichayana conducted from April.12th to 24th  1975: to The controversial Yagna started on April.12, 1975. On April.24, 1975, the Yagna was over and it was reported that an “Awe-Inspiring Sight” occurred! It was claimed that a Kite, Garuda, the divine bird was sighted flying over the Yagnasalas!

1975 and 2014 compared

1975 and 2014 compared

However, now after the rituals were over in the Vedic Workshop 2014, nothing has been reported so far. After 40 years, the delegates have only enjoyed the 5-star hotel accommodation and other facilities.

Panini stamp issued by GOI in 2004

Panini stamp issued by GOI in 2004

Panini rediscovered by the western Indologists[9]: Staal argued that the ancient Indian grammarians, especially Pāṇini, had completely mastered methods of linguistic theory not rediscovered again until the 1950s and the applications of modern mathematical logic to linguistics by Noam Chomsky.  Noam Chomsky himself has said that the first generative grammar in the modern sense was Panini’s grammar[10].  The early methods allowed the construction of discrete, potentially infinite generative systems. Remarkably, these early linguistic systems were codified orally, though writing was then used to develop them in some way. The formal basis for Panini’s methods involved the use of “auxiliary” markers, rediscovered in the 1930s by the logician Emil Post[11]. Post’s rewrite systems are now a standard approach for the description of computer languages. The ancient discoveries were motivated by the need to preserve exact Sanskrit pronunciation and expression given the primacy of language in ancient Indian thought[12]. Now Michael Witzel elaborated this hypothesis and claimed that Panini grammer is known only to him and he can only interpret the Rigvedic verses!

Myth and reality of conduct of yagnas in modern period

Myth and reality of conduct of yagnas in modern period

How AIT nurtured and carried on: As apprehended by the Indian critics, the Vedic chants recorded by John Levy and J. F. Staal was mentioned “Ethnic folkways records” when produced and sold as MP3[13]. The note says, “The four Vedas are made up of a large number of texts, composed nearly two thousand years before Christ, by the poets, seers, sages, and ritualists of Indo-European tribes who invaded the Indian Subcontinent. They are regarded as a sacred revelation and have been transmitted orally and recited faithfully by Brahmin males for a remarkable span of history. Extensive liner notes by noted scholar Frits Staal feature detailed descriptions of each of the four Vedas, including their meaning and musical structure. The album was recorded in South India.”

Vedas mentioned as folklore -Staal

Vedas mentioned as folklore -Staal

Thus, the following ideological orientation could be noted[14]:

  1. The oral tradition of hymns, chants, sacrificial and magical formulas were folklore (myths and legends).
  2. They composed nearly two thousand years before Christ, by the poets, seers, sages, and ritualists.
  3. The poets, seers, sages, and ritualists were Indo-European tribes. This linguistic notion was changed to racial and continues even today.
  4. And they invaded the Indian Subcontinent, i.e, the AIT was stressed.
  5. They are regarded as a sacred revelation and have been transmitted orally and recited faithfully by Brahmin males for a remarkable span of history. i.e, females were prohibited!
Books of Frits Staal

Books of Frits Staal

The Vedic Workshop 2014: Now, Frits Staal is not there, but perhaps taken over Micheal Witzel. He has been showing his peculiar interpretation of Vedas and conveying different attitude towards Vedic studies. Asko Parpola, though has changed much now, he is not found in the Vedic Workshop. Following Vedic procedure, he researched but started interpreting differently changing stands. Such change has been from “Aryan” to “Dravidian”, as his friend Iravatham Mahadevan has been doing. We do not know during the rituals, the foreign participants donned the Indian traditional dress or otherwise. In fact, how the Indian delegates appeared is not known. When I contacted one of the sectional president and paper presenter, he informed that the academic session was conducted strictly without anybody’s interference; even in the selection of papers, there was “peer committee” and it was done carefully, the academic proceedings thus went on well just like an international conference. In comparing the sixth international Vedic workshop held in Kozhiokode from January 7 to 10 2014 and the international conference on Mahabharata  in Tirupati from 7th to 11th 2014, I pointed out the ghost of AIT haunting and daunting the paper presenters[15]. The domination the foreigners has been also pointed out[16].

Books of Frits Staal.2

Books of Frits Staal.2

Vedaprakash

© 16-01-2014


[1] Johan Frederik (Frits) Staal, The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Altar, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi, 2001, Vol.I and II.

[3] This paragraph is reproduced from the Illustrated Weekly dated May 25, 1975, pp.

V. T. Induchudan, Yajna with Foreign participation, Illustrated Weekly dated May 25, 1975, pp.13-15.

[4] According to K. Sugathan, the Buddhist population had suffered a steady decline over the years. By the 1981 census, there were only 223 in Kerala, which is less than one person in one-lakh population, but the 1971 census showed their number as 605.  Buddhism had a strong presence in Kerala until around 16t{+h} century, but then began a period of steady decline. Historians are divided over the fate of Buddhists after its influence began to wane.

http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-kerala/rise-and-fall-of-buddhism-in-kerala/article2862294.ece

[7] N. V. Krishna Warrier (1911-1989) was an Indian poet newspaper editor and scholar

[8]

[10] Advaita and Neoplatonism, University of Madras, 1961.

[11] Kadvany, John (2007). “Positional Value and Linguistic Recursion”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35: 487–520.